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Install Oracle 11g Release 2 on RHEL 5
Posted by Zahid on April 29, 2010.
This is a step by step guide, which will walk you through the installation of Oracle 11g Release 2 on RHEL 5.5 (Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5) 32-bit architecture.
Preparing for install: Pre-Installation Configurations
Check Hardware Requirements:
The first thing we need to verify is, if the hardware we have is okay for an Oracle 11g Installation.
-- Check Physical RAM. # grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo MemTotal: 2075424 kB /* We need at least 1GB of physical RAM. In my case I have 2GB. */ -- Check Swap Space. # grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo SwapTotal: 3148732 kB /* RAM between 1GB and 2GB then Swap = 1.5 times the size of RAM RAM between 2GB and 16GB then Swap = equal to the size of RAM RAM more than 16GB then Swap Size = 16GB Since my RAM is 2GB, so I have 3GB of Swap Size. */ # df -h /dev/shm/ Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on tmpfs 1014M 0 1014M 0% /dev/shm /* What ever you are going to use your Automatic Memory Management Targets later on this database, you need to have shared memory file system size at lease equal to those settings. In my case I have plans to use memory management targets lower then 1000M so 1014 M of shared memory file system is sufficient for me. But if you would like to have a bigger shared memory (/dev/shm) size then do the following: */ # mount -t tmpfs tmpfs -o size=1500m /dev/shm # df -h /dev/shm/ Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on tmpfs 1.5G 0 1.5G 0% /dev/shm -- Check space available in /tmp # df -h /tmp Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda5 1.5G 35M 1.4G 3% /tmp /* You need to have at least 1GB of space in the /tmp directory. Make sure you have 1GB in the column "Avail" in the above output. In my case I have 1.4G space available in /tmp. */ -- Check space for Oracle Software and pre configured database. -- I have created a separate partition "/u01" for Oracle Software -- and database files # df -h /u01 Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/sda2 15G 166M 14G 2% /u01 -- I have 14G available space on the partition /u01. /* Space requirement for Oracle 11g Release 2 Software: Enterprise Edition 3.95G Standard Edition 3.88G Space requirement for Oracle Database Files: 1.7 G ( creating a database is always optional with oracle installation. Can be done later. ) */ /* To install Oracle 11g Release 2 your system should be running on at least 1024x768 screen resolution. */ # xdpyinfo | grep 'dimensions:' dimensions: 1280x720 pixels (433x244 millimeters) /* To install Oracle 11g Release 2 on RHEL 5 you should be running a kernel version 2.6.18 or later. */ # uname -r 2.6.18-194.el5
Pre-Installation Configurations: Meeting the software requirements:
Once all hardware requirements are verified, we will proceed with further configuration.
Make sure that there is an entry in /etc/hosts file for your machine like this:
[IP-address] [fully-qualified-machine-name] [machine-name] /* Where "fully-qualified-machine-name" is your "machine_name"."domain_name" */
Next we need to adjust the Linux Kernel Parameters to support Oracle.
Open /etc/sysctl.conf and add the following lines:
# Oracle settings fs.aio-max-nr = 1048576 fs.file-max = 6815744 kernel.shmall = 2097152 kernel.shmmax = 536870912 kernel.shmmni = 4096 kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128 net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500 net.core.rmem_default = 262144 net.core.rmem_max = 4194304 net.core.wmem_default = 262144 net.core.wmem_max = 1048586 net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 262144 262144 262144 net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4194304 4194304 4194304
Note: You may find the parameters mentioned above already present in the /etc/sysctl.conf file. If they have a value lower then mentioned above then make sure you change it, but if they have a larger value then perhaps its safe to leave it as is.
-- Make the kernel parameters changes effective immediately: # /sbin/sysctl -p -- Verify the parameters are changed or not? # /sbin/sysctl -a | grep name_of_kernel_parameter -- e.g. shmall
Now setup User that we will use as Oracle owner and the groups that it will need for installing and managing Oracle.
/usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall /usr/sbin/groupadd dba /usr/sbin/groupadd oper /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba,oper oracle /usr/bin/passwd oracle
Create directories where the Oracle Software and database will be installed.
mkdir -p /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01 chmod -R 0775 /u01 /* The above directory structure is designed to comply with OFA (Oracle Flexible Architecture) i.e. a directory structure to support multiple oracle software installations. ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle -- Base directory for all oracle installations. ORACLE_HOME=ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_1 -- 11.2.0 installation 1. ORACLE_HOME=ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_2 -- 11.2.0 installation 2. ORACLE_HOME=ORACLE_BASE/product/10.2.0/db_1 -- 10.2.0 installation 1. and so on.... */
Now set the shell limits for the user Oracle.
Open /etc/security/limits.conf and add these lines.
oracle soft nproc 2047 oracle hard nproc 16384 oracle soft nofile 1024 oracle hard nofile 65536
Where "nproc" is the maximum number of processes available to the user and "nofiles" is the number of open file descriptors.
Open /etc/pam.d/login and add the following line if it is already not there.
session required pam_limits.so
Disable secure linux by editing the /etc/selinux/config file, making sure the SELINUX flag is set as follows:
If you leave SELINUX=enforcing then you may get an error later while starting sqlplus:
sqlplus: error while loading shared libraries:
/usr/lib/oracle/default/client64/lib/libclntsh.so.11.1: cannot restore segment
prot after reloc: Permission denied
Now we need to make sure we have all necessary packages for Oracle. Put your Linux Media into DVD and go to the "Server" directory.
cd /dvd_mount_point/Server For RHEL 5 (32-bit): rpm -Uvih binutils-2* rpm -Uvih compat-libstdc++-33* rpm -Uvih elfutils-libelf-0* rpm -Uvih elfutils-libelf-devel-0* rpm -Uvih elfutils-libelf-devel-static-0* rpm -Uvih gcc-4* rpm -Uvih gcc-c++-4* rpm -Uvih glibc-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih glibc-common-2* rpm -Uvih glibc-devel-2* rpm -Uvih glibc-headers-2* rpm -Uvih kernel-headers-2* rpm -Uvih ksh-20* rpm -Uvih libaio-0* rpm -Uvih libaio-devel-0* rpm -Uvih libgcc-4* rpm -Uvih libgomp-4* rpm -Uvih libstdc++-4* rpm -Uvih libstdc++-devel-4* rpm -Uvih make-3* rpm -Uvih numactl-devel-0* rpm -Uvih sysstat-7* rpm -Uvih unixODBC-2* rpm -Uvih unixODBC-devel-2* For RHEL 5 (64-bit): rpm -Uvih binutils-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih compat-libstdc++-33*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih compat-libstdc++-33*i386* rpm -Uvih elfutils-libelf-0*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih elfutils-libelf-devel-0*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih gcc-4*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih gcc-c++-4*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih glibc-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih glibc-2*i686* rpm -Uvih glibc-common-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih glibc-devel-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih glibc-devel-2*i386* rpm -Uvih glibc-headers-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih ksh-20*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih libaio-0*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih libaio-0*i386* rpm -Uvih libaio-devel-0*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih libaio-devel-0*i386* rpm -Uvih libgcc-4*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih libgcc-4*i386* rpm -Uvih libstdc++-4*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih libstdc++-4*i386* rpm -Uvih libstdc++-devel-4*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih make-3*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih numactl-devel-0*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih sysstat-7*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih unixODBC-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih unixODBC-2*i386* rpm -Uvih unixODBC-devel-2*`uname -p`* rpm -Uvih unixODBC-devel-2*i386*
NOTE: If you are using RHEL5 DVD then you should find them all in the "Server" directory in your DVD. And if you don't find one there you may download it from the Linux vendor's Web site.
If you have your Linux distribution in 3 CDs then these will be scattered on all three CDs in the Server directory on all CDs.
Allow the user oracle to use X server, which it will need to run Oracle Universal Installer.
# xhost +SI:localuser:oracle
Now switch to the user oracle.
# su - oracle -- Let's see which shell is being used by the user Oracle. $ echo $SHELL /bin/bash
If the returned shell is bash then open ~/.bash_profile and add these lines:
# Oracle settings TMP=/tmp; export TMP TMPDIR=$TMP; export TMPDIR # If /tmp doesn't have 1G space free then you can workaround it by # pointing the variables TMP AND TMPDIR to a location where you have # sufficient space. ORACLE_HOSTNAME=ora11g.home.com; export ORACLE_HOSTNAME ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_1; export ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_SID=ora11g; export ORACLE_SID ORACLE_TERM=xterm; export ORACLE_TERM PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/bin:/usr/sbin:$PATH; export PATH LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib; export LD_LIBRARY_PATH CLASSPATH=$ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib; export CLASSPATH if [ $USER = "oracle" ]; then if [ $SHELL = "/bin/ksh" ]; then ulimit -p 16384 ulimit -n 65536 else ulimit -u 16384 -n 65536 fi fi umask 022
If using C shell then open ~/.login and add these lines:
# Oracle settings setenv TMP=/tmp setenv TMPDIR=$TMP # If /tmp doesn't have 1G space free then you can workaround it # by pointing the variables TMP AND TMPDIR to a location where you # have sufficient space. Oracle will then use this directory for # temporary files. setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME ora11g.home.com setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle setenv ORACLE_HOME $ORACLE_BASE/product/11.2.0/db_1 setenv ORACLE_SID ora11g setenv ORACLE_TERM xterm setenv PATH /usr/sbin:$PATH setenv PATH $ORACLE_HOME/bin:$PATH setenv LD_LIBRARY_PATH $ORACLE_HOME/lib:/lib:/usr/lib setenv CLASSPATH $ORACLE_HOME/JRE:$ORACLE_HOME/jlib setenv CLASSPATH $CLASSPATH:$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib if ( $USER == "oracle" ) then limit maxproc 16384 limit descriptors 65536 endif umask 022
Now run the following command to make these changes effective in the current session of user oracle.
-- for bash shell $ source ~/.bash_profile -- for C shell $ source ~/.login
Install Oracle 11g Release 2 on RHEL 5:
The environment is ready for oracle installation. Its time to prepare the oracle installation media now.
Download or Copy the oracle media to the oracle user home directory i.e. /home/oracle.
Once Download/Copy is done unzip the media as follows:
$ cd /home/oracle $ ls linux_11gR2_database_1of2.zip linux_11gR2_database_2of2.zip $ $ unzip linux_11gR2_database_1of2.zip $ unzip linux_11gR2_database_2of2.zip
Once the unzip is finished go to the "database" directory unzipped in the previous step and start the Oracle Universal Installer.
$ cd /home/oracle/database/ $ ./runInstaller
The OUI (Oracle Universal Installer) should start and you should see following screens in the order given below:
1. Provide your email address and Oracle support password to get security updates from Oracle.
2. Installation options like creating a database, installing oracle software only or upgrading the database. Select "Create and configure a database".
3. Choose the system class here. Select "Server Class" it provides more advanced options.
4. Choose from creating a single node installation or RAC.
5. Choose your installation Typical or Advanced. We will go with typical at this moment.
6. If you choose typical install in previous screen, then you will see this page for Install Configurations. Provide Oracle software installation location, database files location and administrator password etc.
7. Specify the Oracle install inventory location and Operating system group "oinstall".
8. Now all prerequisite checks will be performed here and if every thing is ok you will be moved to the install summary page. You can hit the "Back" button and come back to see the status of all the checks performed.
9. Installation Summary page. Hit "Finish" to start the Installation.
10. Installation Progress. This will take several minutes and it will automatically invoke Database COnfiguration Assistant to create a database.
11. Database Configuration Assistant invoked by the installer.
12. Once DBCA has finished creating the database, it will show a page like this. It is a summary of the database that has just been created.
13. As a last step you will be asked to execute some configuration scripts as root.
Open another console and login as root. Execute following once logged in successfully.
# /u01/app/oraInventory/orainstRoot.sh Changing permissions of /u01/app/oraInventory. Adding read,write permissions for group. Removing read,write,execute permissions for world. Changing groupname of /u01/app/oraInventory to oinstall. The execution of the script is complete. # /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1/root.sh Running Oracle 11g root.sh script... The following environment variables are set as: ORACLE_OWNER= oracle ORACLE_HOME= /u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0/db_1 Enter the full pathname of the local bin directory: [/usr/local/bin]: Copying dbhome to /usr/local/bin ... Copying oraenv to /usr/local/bin ... Copying coraenv to /usr/local/bin ... Creating /etc/oratab file... Entries will be added to the /etc/oratab file as needed by Database Configuration Assistant when a database is created Finished running generic part of root.sh script. Now product-specific root actions will be performed. Finished product-specific root actions.
14. When configuration scripts are executed successfully by root press OK in the installer and you will see this "Finish" page. Note down the management URL and press "Close".